One study “screened 13 different flavonoids from various flavonoid groups to identify the most potent antiviral flavonoid against human influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). The 3-hydroxyl group flavonoids, including 3,2᾿dihydroxyflavone (3,2᾿DHF) and 3,4᾿dihydroxyflavone (3,4᾿DHF), showed potent anti-influenza activity.”
Another study “demonstrated the following arrangement for their anti-influenza activities: nepitrin (2) > 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-β-d-glucoside (1) > homoplantaginin (3). The potent inhibitory activities of these flavonoids against influenza suggested their potential to be developed as novel anti-influenza drugs in the future.”
Yet another study found “that some flavonoid compounds possess an ability of anti-influenza virus, one of which is hesperidin. Hesperidin potentially inhibited influenza virus production in A549 cells and MDCK cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anti-influenza virus activity of hesperidin. Our data demonstrated that hesperidin enhanced cell-autonomous immunity by modulating MAP kinase signaling pathways via up-regulating p38 and JNK activation while down-regulating ERK activation.”
These findings supports the importance of flavinoids in our plant-based food groups in our diet as promoted by the:
1. new Canada Food Guide (>50% plant-based),
2. the World Health organization’s Nutrition Fact Sheet (400 grams per day of non-starchy vegetables and fruits) &
3. the Basic Meal Plan in the Canadian Diabetic Association Guidelines (50% vegetables).
My meals begin with 5 oz of non-starchy vegetables and my favorite beverage this winter is orange peels steeped in hot water. Orange peels are rich in hesperidine - besides having antiviral properties, also a potent anti-inflammatory.
For my patients in retirement / nursing homes, my usual recommendation or standing order is 5 oz of non-starchy vegetables three times a day.